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By approximately 1870, factory-based manufacturing had also become the dominant organisational form in the economy in continental Europe. The unlimited power of industrial logics generated resistance. The workers in the factories began to form interest groups and political organisations. The'useless', non-employable members of society were ignored by the trade unions and political parties of the 'useful', though.

Reacting to the misery of the disabled and mentally ill, Catholic and Protestant lay organisations began to form in order to tend to these people. The most famous amongst them are the Vizenz Movement, the Merciful Sisters and the Protestant social welfare organisation. The Upper Austrian Welfare Society, which established a care facility for disabled people at Hartheim Castle in 1898, should also be mentioned here.    

Photo: Room 'Care for the "Useless"' with ancient wheelchair in a vitrine